List of Linux distributions – 1

 

Debian-based

Debian GNU/Linux is a distribution that emphasizes free software. It supports many hardware platforms. Debian and distributions based on it use the .deb package formatand the dpkg package manager and its frontends.

Distribution Description
64 Studio Attempts to specialize in audio and video production on x86-64 workstations.
aptosid Multilingual desktop-oriented Live CD based on Debian unstable. Formerly sidux.
Bharat Operating System Solutions This software is also known by the acronym BOSS GNU/Linux or simply BOSS Linux.
Canaima A Venezuelan distribution.
Caixa Mágica A Portuguese distribution.
Corel Linux Commercial. Short-lived desktop distribution, bought by Xandros Linux.
CrunchBang Linux A small Distro and Live CD based on Debian Stable, featuring the Openbox window manager and tint2 panel with GTK+ applications.
Dreamlinux A Brazilian Linux distribution (not active anymore).
Elive A Live CD and Distribution featuring Enlightenment as the only window manager. Aims to be intuitive and easy to use.
Emdebian Grip A small-footprint Linux distribution based on and compatible with Debian, intended for use on resource-limited embedded systems.
Finnix A small system administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures.
gNewSense gNewSense is a computer operating system, originally based on Ubuntu and later upon Debian, and developed with sponsorship from the Free Software Foundation. Its goal is user-friendliness, but with all proprietary (e.g. binary blobs) and non-free software removed.
grml Live CD for system recovery.
HandyLinux A Debian derivative, designed for seniors equipped with old computers which have become too slow for Windows.
Instant WebKiosk Live, browser only operating system for use in web kiosks and for digital signage.
Kali Linux Made to be a completely customizable OS, used for penetration testing.
Kanotix An installable live DVD/CD for desktop usage using KDE and LXDE, focusing on convenient scripts and GUI for ease of use.
Knoppix The first Live CD (later DVD) version of Debian GNU/Linux.
Kurumin Earlier, it was a version of the Knoppix distribution, modified with Debian and designed for Brazilian users.
LEAF Project The Linux Embedded Appliance Framework. A tiny primarily floppy-based distribution for routers, firewalls and other appliances.
LiMux An ISO 9241 industry workplace certified Linux distribution, deployed at the City of Munich, Germany.
LinuxBBQ LinuxBBQ is a plethora of releases for various targets and goals based on Debian Sid.
Linux Mint Debian Edition Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) is a rolling distribution based on Debian Testing. It is available in both 32 and 64-bit as a live DVD with a Cinnamon or MATE desktop. The purpose of LMDE is to look identical to the main Linux Mint edition and to provide the same functionality while using Debian as a base.
Maemo A development platform for hand held devices such as the Nokia N800, N810, and Nokia N900 Internet Tablets and other Linux kernel–based devices.
MEPIS Focuses on ease of use. Also includes a lightweight variant called antiX. antiX is meant to be used on older computers with limited hardware.
MintPPC For PowerPC computers. Although MintPPC uses some Mint LXDE code, it is not Linux Mint.
Musix GNU+Linux A Debian based distribution, intended for music production, graphic design, audio, video editing, and other tasks. It is built with only free software.
NepaLinux A Debian and Morphix based distribution focused for desktop usage in Nepali language computing.
OpenZaurus Debian packages and ROM image for the Sharp Zaurus PDA. Replaced by Ångström distribution.
Pardus Developed by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology. Prior to 2013 it used PISI as the package manager, with COMAR as the configuration framework. Starting with Pardus 2013, it is Debian-based.
Parsix Optimized for personal computers and laptops. Built on top of Debian testing branch and comes with security support.
PureOS Based on Debian Testing.
Rxart Desktop-oriented distribution. Focused on providing proprietary software.
Sacix A Debian Pure Blend originally created to support the educational and free software diffusion goals of the Telecentres project of the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
Siduction Derived from aptosid, siduction is a distro based on debian sid with a friendly community.
Skolelinux A distribution from Norway. It is provided as a thin client distribution for schools.
SolusOS Based on the Stable branch of Debian with updated software applications from Debian backports. Improved media support. Features the Gnome desktop with usability patches and customized applications.
SolydXK Xfce and KDE desktop with a semi-rolling release model.
SteamOS Debian-based and gaming-focused distribution developed by Valve Corporation and designed around the Steam digital distribution platform.
Sunwah Linux A Chinese distribution
Symphony OS Includes the Mezzo desktop environment. Previous versions were based on Knoppix.
SalineOS Lean, stable and easy-to-use distribution with XFCE as graphical interface.
TAILS The Amnesic Incognito Live System’ or Tails is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity, with all outgoing connections forced to go through Tor.
Ubuntu A distribution sponsored by Canonical Ltd. and receiving major funding from South African Mark Shuttleworth. Aims to offer a complete and polished desktop on a single DVD.
Ulteo Virtual desktop project.
Univention Corporate Server Enterprise distribution with integrated IT infrastructure and identity management system by the company Univention GmbH, Germany. A full version for up to 5 users for tests and for private use can be downloaded.
Webconverger Debian Live based browser only distribution, similar to Google Chrome OS. However based on Firefox & dwm, with no user sign-in, no special hardware required and designed for public places.
Vyatta Commercial open source network operating system includes routing, firewall, VPN, intrusion prevention and more. Designed to be an open source Cisco replacement.

Knoppix-based

Knoppix, itself, is based on Debian.

Distribution Description
Damn Small Linux It is a small distro designed to run on older hardware. It is commonly used on virtual machines due to low memory requirements.
Feather Linux It boots from either a CD or a USB flash drive. Uses Knoppix-based hardware detection and the Fluxbox window manager.
Hikarunix A distribution solely for studying and playing the game of Go. Based on Damn Small Linux.
Kaella The French translation of Knoppix.

Ubuntu-based

Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian, designed to have regular releases, a consistent user experience and commercial support on both desktop and server.

Official distributions

These Ubuntu variants simply install a set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them.

Distribution Description
Edubuntu A complete Linux kernel–based operating system targeted for primary and secondary education. It is freely available with community based support. The Edubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Edubuntu Manifesto: that software, especially for education, should be available free of charge and that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities.
Kubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces used by default in Ubuntu.
Lubuntu Lubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is “lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient”, using the LXDE desktop environment.
Mythbuntu Based on Ubuntu and MythTV, providing applications for recording TV and acting as a media center.
Ubuntu for Android Designed for use with Android phones.
Ubuntu GNOME An official Ubuntu variant[59] that uses Gnome Shell as its default desktop and GDM as its display manager.
UbuntuKylin An official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.
Ubuntu Server An official derivative made for use in servers. Ubuntu Server handles mail, controls printers, acts as a fileserver, can host LAMP and more.
Ubuntu Studio Based on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed at the audio, video and graphic editors.
Ubuntu Touch Designed for use with touchscreen devices.
Ubuntu TV Designed for use with TVs.
Xubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.

Old official distributions

Distribution Description
Ubuntu JeOS “Just Enough OS” – was described as “an efficient variant […] configured specifically for virtual appliances”. Since the release of Ubuntu 8.10 it has been included as an option as part of the standard Ubuntu Server Edition.
Ubuntu Mobile An embedded operating system designed for use on mobile devices. The operating system will use Hildon from maemo as its graphical frontend. Ubuntu Touch is a successor to Ubuntu Mobile.
Ubuntu Netbook Edition Netbook Edition was an official derivative of Ubuntu designed for netbooks using the Intel Atom processor. Starting from Ubuntu 11.04, Ubuntu Netbook Edition has been merged into the desktop edition.

Third-party distributions

Unofficial variants and derivatives are not controlled or guided by Canonical Ltd. and generally have different goals in mind.

Distribution Description
Aurora Specifically for the Eee PC range of netbooks, based on Debian. Previously named Eeebuntu and based on Ubuntu.
Baltix Ubuntu-based distribution for Lithuanian and Latvian people. Supported languages are Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, Russian, English, Norwegian and other around Baltic region. Main language is Lithuanian.
BackBox BackBox is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It has been developed to perform penetration tests and security assessments. Designed to be fast, easy to use and provide a minimal yet complete desktop environment, thanks to its own software repositories, always being updated to the latest stable version of the most used and best known ethical hacking tools.
BackTrack Developed by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing.
BlankOn Ubuntu-based distribution for users in Indonesia.
Buildix An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution, developed by Global IT professional services firm, ThoughtWorks. For agile developers.
Bodhi Linux An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution featuring the Enlightenment window manager and targeting users who want minimum of preinstalled software or low system requirements.
Cubuntu Ubuntu-based distribution with the Cinnamon interface.
Linux Deepin a Linux distribution based on the Ubuntu Linux Distribution. The Chinese version is tailored for Chinese language users and includes preconfigured Chinese applications such as simplified Chinese input methods, Chinese dictionaries, and Chinese TrueType fonts. From Version 11.12, Linux Deepin provides different ISO images for Chinese and English.
dyne:bolic Live CD geared toward multimedia (audio and video) production, but comes with other non-media specific application (e.g.: word processor, desktop publisher).
EasyPeasy Fork of Ubuntu designed for netbooks.
Element OS Based on Xubuntu, made for Home theater PCs.
Elementary OS A powerful, user-friendly distribution known for its well received user interface, proprietary software, and devoted community of developers and artists.
Emmabuntüs Based on Xubuntu designed to facilitate the repacking of computers donated to Emmaüs Communities.
GendBuntu A version adapted for use by France’s National Gendarmerie.
Gobuntu Gobuntu was an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. It was officially announced by Mark Shuttleworth on July 10, 2007, and daily builds of Gobuntu 7.10 began to be publicly released. The project ended around the release of 8.04 and has since merged into mainline Ubuntu as a ‘free software’ option.
Goobuntu An Ubuntu-based distribution used internally by Google. Not available outside of Google.
gOS Uses the GNOME desktop environment with user interface enhancements to make it work more like Mac OS X, it also features Google Apps, Picasa, Google Gadgets and other web-based applications, and comes with Wine 1.0 pre-installed.
Guadalinex Ubuntu-based distribution promoted by the local government of Andalucia, Spain, for home users and schools.
Iskolinux A Linux distribution packaged and maintained by UP Manila’s (UPM) Information Management System as part of University of the Philippines’ thrust to migrate to Linux.
Joli OS Joli OS (formerly named Jolicloud) is in development and Pre-beta testing. Joli OS is built upon Debian and Ubuntu 9.10, but is tweaked to be more suitable for computers that have weaker specifications in terms of disk storage, memory and screen size. It is designed to run on relatively low-powered netbook computers.
HP Mi Based on Ubuntu 8.04 LTS, designed by Canonical and HP for use on the HP Mini 1000 and 110 series netbooks.
Impi Linux South African and focuses on the enterprise and government sector.
Karoshi A formerly PCLinuxOS-based distribution designed for use in schools.
Kuki Linux Lightweight Ubuntu-based Linux distribution founded by João Ferro, built to be a replacement for the Linpus Linux Lite distribution on the Acer Aspire One.
LiMux A project by the city council of Munich, Germany.
Linux Mint Linux Mint synchronizes its release-cycle with Ubuntu’s, and is tailored to user-friendliness for desktop users. Also features a Debian-based edition.
LinuxMCE Linux Media Center Edition, a Kubuntu based distribution that provides in-depth HTPC functionality as well as home automation.[88]
LinuxTLE A Thai Linux distribution.
LliureX A distribution by the Generalitat Valenciana
LOUD LCSEE Optimized Ubuntu Distribution, an Ubuntu distribution used at West Virginia University. It contains several specialized educational packages as well as its own themes and login manager.
MAX Stands for MAdrid LinuX.
Molinux Ubuntu based initiative to introduce the Castile-La Mancha community in Spain to the information society.
Moon OS Moon OS uses the Enlightenment window manager and also has an LXDE version, and is based on the LTS release.
Nova Cuban state-sponsored distribution developed at the University of Information Science, Havana. Formerly based on Gentoo.
Netrunner Kubuntu based distribution with complete software and codecs installed, developed by Blue Systems (also sponsoring Kubuntu and LinuxMintKDE).
OpenGEU Ubuntu based distribution with Enlightenment window manager, previously known as Geubuntu.
Peppermint OS A light-weight LXDE distribution for cloud applications through its own Ice Framework using Chromium Web Browser. Based on Lubuntu
Pinguy OS An Ubuntu-based distro for people that have never used Linux before or for people that want an out-of-the-box working OS without having to tweak a fresh installation of Ubuntu or other Ubuntu-based distro.
Poseidon Linux For academic and scientific use. Based on Ubuntu, but enhanced by e.g. GIS/maps, numerical modelling, 2D/3D/4D visualization, statistics, tools for creating simple and complex graphics, programming languages.
PUD Small distribution, aimed at being simple and usable.
Qimo 4 Kids Educational games for children aged three and up. Ubuntu-based with easy-to-use interface.
Sabily Ubuntu based distribution for Muslims (formerly Ubuntu Muslim Edition).
Super OS Aiming to provide an ‘out of the box’ experience, containing various enhancements over Ubuntu.
Trisquel GNU/Linux Fully free software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses the Linux-libre kernel, based on Ubuntu LTS Releases.
TurnKey Linux Virtual Appliance Library Open source project developing a family of free, Ubuntu-based appliances optimized for ease of use in server-type usage scenarios.
UberStudent For higher education and advanced secondary students, those who teach them, and lifelong learners.
Vinux A Linux distribution designed for visually impaired users.
ZevenOS Similar to BeOS, with some extra tools.
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Support for Ubuntu 12.10 Officially Ends

Ubuntu 12.10

Announced today, Ubuntu 12.10 aka Quantal Qwetzal and the official variants xubuntu, lubuntu, edubuntu are officially end-of-support 16 May 2014.

Ubuntu 12.10 is no longer supported as of May 16, 2014. Canonical advises that those still running it upgrade to Ubuntu 14.04 (via Ubuntu 13.10).

Changes to the way releases are supported made after the Quetzal was released means its successor, Ubuntu 13.04, has already reached ‘end of life’.

Current

Version

Code name

Docs

Release date

End of life date

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS

Trusty Tahr

Rel

April 17, 2014

April 2019

Ubuntu 13.10

Saucy Salamander

Rel

October 17, 2013

July 2014

Ubuntu 12.10

Quantal Quetzal

Tech / Rel

October 18, 2012

May 16, 2014

Ubuntu 12.04.4 LTS

Precise Pangolin

Changes

February 6, 2014

April 2017

Ubuntu 12.04.3 LTS

Precise Pangolin

Changes

August 23, 2013

Ubuntu 12.04.2 LTS

Precise Pangolin

Changes

February 14, 2013

Ubuntu 12.04.1 LTS

Precise Pangolin

Changes

August 24, 2012

Ubuntu 12.04 LTS

Precise Pangolin

Tech / Rel

April 26, 2012

Ubuntu 10.04.4 LTS

Lucid Lynx

Changes

February 16, 2012

May 9, 2013 (Desktop)
April 2015 (Server)

Ubuntu 10.04.3 LTS

Lucid Lynx

Changes

July 21, 2011

Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS

Lucid Lynx

Changes

February 18, 2011

Ubuntu 10.04.1 LTS

Lucid Lynx

Changes

August 17, 2010

Ubuntu 10.04 LTS

Lucid Lynx

Tech / Rel

April 29, 2010

for more

It’s not unusual for Linux developers to provide limited support for the operating systems. With very few exceptions, which are usually confirmed by big names like Red Hat, Canonical, and the Debian project (not a profit-based enterprise), most of the operating systems don’t usually last more than two years tops.

There is a number of reasons for this, but the most important is manpower. It’s time consuming to have developers churn out security updates and fix problems when they can just work on something else that is way more exciting.

Another reason for the limited support time for the Linux operating systems is the fact that development takes place at an incredible speed. Things change so quickly in open source that developers usually prefer to make a new operating system with some features than to backport them to something that is already two years old.You can get goo idea about how long will Ubuntu releases supported from here.

ubuntu-release-cycle-2