Fedora 24 release event


It was another successful event and this is my first event for fedora. I had a grate time with school students, I think shared lot of information about the Fedora distribution and the community.

There were about 30 student which is age 15 to 19  most of them are doing G.C.E A/L and there were G.C.E O/L students also.For student it was a very interesting session and they are new to Fedora distribution.

IMG_20160630_092754 IMG_20160630_100004

The report

About the school

First I have to thank school teacher Mr.Puspa Kumara who help make this event successful.I am not sure if the release event would even be possible to have. Siri Piyarathana Central College is located in western province,Colombo district ,Padukka city there are about 3000 students in grade 6-13 classes and belongs to Zonal educational zone Homagama.

The event

We stared the event in the morning.I introduce myself and previous events I have done for the FOSS community in Sri Lanka. We had a small chat about what was of the purpose of the event and what was the current states of the ICT knowledge in the school.Right after that, I started my talk.

  • I gave them a small introduction about how GUN project started, What is Linux kernel, How Linux kernel started and  and the I gave the a idea about the open source and open source hardwares.not only that i showed some videos also which is about open source projects and free softwares.
  • Next I talk about the Fedora distribution, How fedora project started, also about the fedora community and How we contribute to fedora project.
  • Next we talk about the what’s new in fedora 24 distribution talk about the photo editing tools also.
  • before finishing the event I gave the steps to how dual boot fedora 24.
  • And finally I did a small python coding session with the student and I gave them instructions, how we compile python code on fedora terminal.


I think I gave good introduction about the Free/Open Source and the Fedora Distribution it is not easy to organize an event when you are doing a day job but i will do it again. You can download the presentation from here and see the more details about the event visit fedoraproject.org wik page from here(go to APAC) or click here.


Fedora 24 Alpha – Workstation Installation

Fedora 24 Alpha version was released April 12th 2016 and they right on schedule for June final release.

You can download following prerelease from Get Fedora site:

Noted : Now current states Fedora 24 Beta is pushed back to at least 10 may.Confirmation of this latest F24 delay here. But you can download Fedora 24 Beta, click here

What is the Alpha release?

The Alpha release contains all the features of Fedora 24’s editions in a form that anyone can help test. This testing, guided by the Fedora QA team, helps us target and identify bugs. When these bugs are fixed, we make a Beta release available. A Beta release is code-complete and bears a very strong resemblance to the third and final release. The final release of Fedora 24 is expected in June.

If you take the time to download and try out the Alpha, you can check and make sure the things that are important to YOU are working. Every bug you find and report doesn’t just help you, it improves the experience of millions of Fedora users worldwide!

Together, we can make Fedora rock-solid. We have a culture of coordinating new features and pushing fixes upstream as much as we can, and your feedback improves not only Fedora, but Linux and Free software as a whole.


Fedora 24 Alpha Install Guide for workstation

  1. Before Installation

    1. You can download Fedora 24  Alpha from here.
      1.  Select your version, Fedora 24 Alpha Workstation. On this guide I use Fedora 24 Alpha Workstation 64-bit.
    2. To create a live stick you can use Rufus
    3. if you need to create a dual boot with windows you need to create a unallocated partition that have about 100GBfedora-01
  2. Boot Option Menu select start Linux 24_Alphafedora-1

  3. Start Fedora 23 Alpha Installation click Install to Hard Drivefedora-2

  4. Select Languagefedora-3

  5. Select I accept my fatefedora-4

  6. Installation summary Windowfedora-5

    1. select installation destination

      1. it will detect unallocated partition if you only select Automatically configure partitioning and finally click Done button.fedora-20
    2. You can change date by clicking TIME & DATE

    3. Modify partitions manually

      1. click  “I will configure partitioning” and click Donefedora-m1
      2. you click link that call “click here to create them automatically” or you can click “+” mark to create swap(RAM size), boot partition (500 MB) and rest space goes to root finally click Donefedora-m2fedora-m3
      3. click Accept Changesfedora-24
    4. All done click Begin Installation

  7. Package Installation and Setupfedora-7

  8. Setup root Passwordfedora-8

  9. Create User Account

    1. click “Make this user administrator”fedora-9
  10. All went well click Quitfedora-12

  11. Finishing Fedora 24 Alpha

    1. Fedora 24 Boot Menu (Grub 2)fedora-21

    2. Booting Fedora 24fedora-11

    3. Fedora 24 Alpha GDM Login windowfedora-19

    4. Fedora 24 Alpha Gnome Welcome Screenfedora-13

    5. Select Input Sourcesfedora-14

    6. Privacy Settingsfedora-15

    7. add Cloud Accountfedora-16

    8. Start using Gnomefedora-17

  12. Fedora 24 Alpha Desktop Screenshotsfedora-18



25 Best Linux Apps


1. Nagios for Monitoring – This app is for free. Its license status is GPL. The app lies inactive on your computer system monitoring host resources and network services with the aim of notifying the admin in the event a problem arises. You can download the app from http://www.nagios.org

2. GIT for Version control- As cited on techradar.com, this app is for free. Its license status is GPLv2. After becoming the default revision control system for the kernel, the app has gained popularity and become easier than ever owing to sites like Github. You can download the app from http://www.git-scm.com

3. GIMP – This app is for free. Its license status is GPL. The app is well known and comes as a standard on most distributions. There are books that are being written about it and it is quite often offered as the free alternative to Adobe’s Photoshop. It has three striking features which include –
a) A very robust set of tools, providing support for everything from sub-pixel sampling and custom brushes for painting, right through to advanced manipulation tools such as layers, channels and transformable paths.
b) It comes with a versatile plug-in and extension system allowing any task to be automated using a simple script that can be written once and then executed with ease by a majority of users.
c) The app has an active community of developers meaning that even where Gimp lacks important features, work is constantly ongoing to extend it and make it the best tool possible. You can download the app from http://www.gimp.org

4. VirtualBox for Virtualisation – This app is for free. Its license status is GPLv2. Owing to its guest additions package, the app is well integrated to the host system and very fast. This makes it quite simple to spin-up a new virtual machine with its GUI along with command line and remote configuration tools. You can download the app from http://www.virtualbox.org

5. World of Goo – This app is priced at $20 and is proprietary. A physics-based construction and puzzle game that’s become widely regarded as one of the best indie games of the past decade. It features beautifully drawn, cartoonish graphics that are cheerful, uplifting and timeless. All it involves is dragging Goos together to form a structure, but it’s addictive and lots of fun. The app can be downloaded the app from http://www.2dboy.com/games.php

6. Money Dance – This app is priced at $49.99 and is proprietary. The app helps you to stay on top of your finances. The app is very easy and provides a clear overview of upcoming bills, the status of various budgets (which it helps you to create) and informative graphs and reports. You can download the app from http://www.moneydance.com

7. Eclipse IDE – This is a free app. Its license status is Eclipse Public. The app is an excellent, stable IDE. The Content Assist feature of the app that uses auto-complete methods, types and fields, is great for forgetful coders or those working on complex codebases. The app also has automatically enforced coding styles and copy and paste traces making it perfect for team development. You can download the app from http://www.eclipse.org/eclipse/index.php

8. Tomboy – Organiser – This is a free app and its license status is LGPL. This app is a little cool for collecting and organizing notes. It provides support for basic formatting and has automatic saving. The app makes managing to-do lists or organising research notes on a complex project really simple. You can download the app from http://www.projects.gnome.org/tomboy

9. Selinux –Security – This is a free app and its license status is GPL. This app is integrated with Linux 2.6 allowing it to be configured to restrict resources available to users, programs and daemons very effectively. You can download the app from http://www.selinuxproject.org/page/Main_Page.

10. Deja-Dup -Back-up tool – This is a free app and its license status is GPLv3. This app is a very simple tool for carrying out backups automatically and off-site. Its interface has two buttons and the configuration details are straightforward supporting a great range of backup locations including Amazon S3, SSH and Windows Shares. You can download the app from www. live.gnome.org/DejaDup .

11. Chromuim – Web browser – This is a free browser and its license status is BSD. Google Chrome allows you to do many things in a better way compared to many other applications. The interface is kept free of tabs. All the tabs are in the title bar allowing you to focus on the content better. It is the fastest among all the browsers.

12. Ubuntu Software Centre – This is a free app and its license status is GPL. It goes to a certain extent in making Linux repositories as pleasant as other trendy ‘app’ stores that have appeared recently. You can download the app from http://www.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/features.

13. Amnesia The Dark Descent – This is a proprietary app and is priced at $20. This is the scariest survival horror game ever to have been made. You can download it from http://www.amnesiagame.com .

14. Pencil – Animation – This is a free app and its license status is GPL. The app makes traditional, hand-drawn animations along with bitmap and vector images. The finished animations can be exported as PNG or Flash. You can download this app from http://www.pencilanimation.org.

15. IRSSI -IRC client – This is a free app and its license status is GPL. This app helps you in freeing yourself from getting stuck on the command line. You can download the app from http://www.irssi.org

16. EMACS -Text editor – This is a free app and its license status is GPLv3. It is not only the most popular editor but also also a mail and news reader, project planner, calendar and much more. You can download the app from http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs.

17. Artha –Thesaurus – This is a free app and its license status is GPLv2. An off-line thesaurus based on WordNet. It can look up selected text at the press of a button and provides synonyms, antonyms, causes and much more. You can download the app from http://www.artha.sourceforge.net/wiki.

18. Banshee – Media player – This is a free app and its license status is MIT. This is a great media player with support for audio and video in any format. It is also a great support for portable devices. You can download the app from http://www.banshee.fm.

19. ZSNES -SNES emulator – This is a free app and its license status is GPLv2. This is an excellent emulator to run your favorite games, from Mario to Street Fighter to Final Fantasy. You can download the app from http://www.zsnes.com.

20. Empathy- Messaging program – This is a free app and its license status is GPL. This app allows you to chat with your friends irrespective of the platform they choose. The app supports a broad range of features on multiple networks that includes voice and video calling. You can download the app from http://www.live.gnome.org/Empathy.

21. Shotwell – Photo manager – This is a free app and its license status is LGPL. This is a stable and feature-rich photo manager. It automatically collects images according to date. Its handly tools also make it easy to remove red-eye, crop, and adjust the color levels in your photographs and the software also supports uploading your pictures to plenty of online services, including Facebook, Flickr and Picasa.
You can download this app from http://www.yorba.org/shotwell.

22. TOR – Anonymity network – This is a free app and its license status is BSD. The app protects you from traffic analysis, it acts like a network surveillance allowing third parties to make a detailed picture of your online habits. It encrypts your network traffic and routes it through a random set of other computers obscuring the origin and destination from prying eyes. You can download the app from http://www.torproject.org

23. Music Player Daemon – This is a free app and its license status is GPL. It is server-side application for playing music. It is capable and can support gapless playback and filesystem monitoring; as a server. You can download the app from http://www.mpd.wikia.com.

24. VLC -Media player – This is a free app and its license status is GPLv2 or later. It’s a light Media Player sporting a hassle free interface that has been designed to get out of your way so that you can get on with watching your movies or listening to the latest episode of TuxRadar. It also has built-in support for almost every format known to man (with the exception of DVDs, which require you to install libdvdcss). You can download the app from http://www.videolan.org/vlc.

25. Clockwork Man –Game – This is a proprietary app and is priced at $14.95. The game has great background and detailed features. You can download the app from http://www.theclockworkman.com/en

Linux 3.15 Release Offers Better Performance, Faster Speeds



The third major milestone release this year of the open-source Linux kernel is now available, providing users with new and improved features. The Linux 3.15 kernel follows Linux 3.14, which was formally released on March 30.

Among the enhanced capabilities in the Linux 3.15 kernel is improved suspend and resume performance. The new suspend and resume code “provides a tangible speed up for a non-esoteric use case (laptop resume),” Linux kernel developer Dan Williams told Linux creator Linus Torvalds in a Linux Kernel Mailing List (LKML) message.

Linux 3.15 packs a few key new features as well as a significant amount of “under-the-covers cleanup and restructuring,” Corbet said in an LWN article on the 3.15 merge window. Here’s a look at some of the highlights.

1. More Speed

Linux users across the board will likely appreciate a new feature in Linux 3.15 that allows systems with SATA disk controllers to resume from suspend much faster than they could before.

“Much of the time spent waiting for a system to resume goes into waiting for the ATA controllers to power up and get into a working state,” Corbet explained.

Now, with a pair of new patches, the drivers start the process immediately rather than waiting for the controller to return to a working state, allowing the rest of the kernel to continue working toward resuming the system while the controller powers up.

Bottom line? Resume time on a drive-heavy system dropped from 11.6 seconds to 1.1 seconds, Corbet noted; on single-drive systems, it went from more than five seconds to less than one.

“It is clearly a worthwhile improvement, especially since it requires little in the way of added complexity overall,” he said.

2. Better Performance

Of particular interest to users running workloads with large working sets is a patch set that improves memory management — specifically, the assessment of whether individual pages are being actively used or not.

Traditionally, Linux has maintained lists of both active and inactive pages, but it restricted the “active” list such that it couldn’t get longer than the “inactive” one, thereby causing problems. Now, through better balancing of those lists, performance can be improved, Corbet said.

Also improving performance in the new kernel is the fact that the FUSE (filesystems in user space) subsystem can now perform writeback caching, thus improving performance on write-heavy workloads. A per-thread virtual memory area (VMA) caching patch set, meanwhile, “should improve memory management performance for a number of workloads,” Corbet said.

3. Increased ARM Support

Support for a raft of new hardware has been added to Linux 3.15, including numerous ARM-based boards. Support for user-space probing with uprobes on ARM has been added as well.

The list of other freshly supported hardware includes several processors and systems, including two from Broadcom, as well as audio, graphics, networking equipment and more.

There are, of course, numerous other changes in Linux 3.15 as well. For a full summary, check out the changelog on KernelNewbies.org.

Linux 3.16 Up Next

With the Linux 3.15 release, Torvalds diverged somewhat from the long-established process by which new kernels are developed. Typically, the merge window for new code set to land in the Linux kernel does not open until the kernel that is currently in development is formally released. In the case of Linux 3.15, that would have meant that the merge window for the Linux 3.16 kernel would not open until June 9.

Due to Torvalds’ own vacation schedule and a desire not to be the reason for delay in the release of Linux 3.16, he actually opened up the merge window for Linux 3.16 on June 1.

“I’m not entirely convinced I liked the overlap, but it seemed to work ok, and unless people scream really loudly (‘Please don’t _ever_ do that again’) and give good reasons for doing so, I might end up doing that overlapping merge window in the future too if it ends up helping out with some particular timing issue,” Torvalds wrote in his release message for Linux 3.15. “That said, I also don’t think it was such a wonderful experience that I’d want to necessarily do the overlap every time, without a good specific reason for doing so.”

The third major milestone release this year of the open-source Linux kernel is now available, providing users with new and improved features. The Linux 3.15 kernel follows Linux 3.14, which was formally released on March 30. Among the enhanced capabilities in the Linux 3.15 kernel is improved suspend and resume performance. The new suspend and resume code “provides a tangible speed up for a non-esoteric use case (laptop resume),” Linux kernel developer Dan Williams told Linux creator Linus Torvalds in a Linux Kernel Mailing List (LKML) message. – See more at: http://www.eweek.com/enterprise-apps/linux-3.15-speeds-up-suspendresume-performance.html#sthash.O5ryLWpB.dpuf

The third major milestone release this year of the open-source Linux kernel is now available, providing users with new and improved features. The Linux 3.15 kernel follows Linux 3.14, which was formally released on March 30. Among the enhanced capabilities in the Linux 3.15 kernel is improved suspend and resume performance. The new suspend and resume code “provides a tangible speed up for a non-esoteric use case (laptop resume),” Linux kernel developer Dan Williams told Linux creator Linus Torvalds in a Linux Kernel Mailing List (LKML) message. – See more at: http://www.eweek.com/enterprise-apps/linux-3.15-speeds-up-suspendresume-performance.html#sthash.O5ryLWpB.dpuf

The third major milestone release this year of the open-source Linux kernel is now available, providing users with new and improved features. The Linux 3.15 kernel follows Linux 3.14, which was formally released on March 30. Among the enhanced capabilities in the Linux 3.15 kernel is improved suspend and resume performance. The new suspend and resume code “provides a tangible speed up for a non-esoteric use case (laptop resume),” Linux kernel developer Dan Williams told Linux creator Linus Torvalds in a Linux Kernel Mailing List (LKML) message. – See more at: http://www.eweek.com/enterprise-apps/linux-3.15-speeds-up-suspendresume-performance.html#sthash.O5ryLWpB.dpuf

Wacky yet interesting Linux distributions



1) Red Star OS
Red Star OS is being developed as the officially approved operating system of North Korea, seemingly on the request of Kim Jong-Il, who is the country’s leader. Based on the familiar KDE 3.x, it has added touches such as the Woodpecker antivirus software and the Pyongyang Fortress firewall.

2) MuLinux
This is a small distro, perhaps in the same vein as Puppy or Damn Small Linux. MuLinux needs 20MB hard disk space and 4MB RAM, and will be powered by an Intel 80386 processor or advanced version. Mu might lag behind in terms of productivity if you compare it with modern machines, but if you own a 25-year-old machine that you want to save from the waste, it’s certainly the distro you should try.

3) Ubuntu Satanic Edition
Ubuntu sequels are ten-a-penny, but it seems the creators of Ubuntu SE have gone overboard to please The Dark One. The dark theme and assortment of background images is the most apparent change, but sound effects and startup jingle have also been altered.

4) GoboLinux
This one is meant for techies and what distinguishes GoboLinux from the rest is its filesystem layout. Majority of Linux distros use an ancient non-arrangement wherein an application’s files are speckled around your hard drive in multiple folders. GoboLinux implements an OS X-like approach and stores all files linked with an application in a single folder in /Programs.

5) GNewSense
Those, who like software freedom, would like GNewSense. The distro is based on Ubuntu, but has removed all non-free software, such as those devious non-free driver files that are loaded into the Linux kernel. Unluckily, majority of these blobs are actually drivers for wireless networking cards, so it’s perhaps not the best distro for laptops. If you look at the plus side, distro has removed or renamed software that doesn’t fall in the Free Software Foundation’s definition of freedom.

6) Sabily/Ubuntu Christian Edition
Previously termed as Ubuntu Islamic Remix, Sabily is actually Ubuntu with extra Islam. It has adopted an Islamic theme with so much green, even the Applications menu has been extended to embrace a selection of Quran study/prayer-time software, Ubuntu Christian Edition has religious study tools and enhanced web filtering.

7) Yellow Dog
First released in the late 90s for Apple PCs, it was based on the PowerPC chip architecture. Yellow Dog was liked by people who wanted a way to think differently. Then, Apple deserted PowerPC in support of Intel chips, which are still being used. Yellow Dog re-invented itself after a change of ownership as an OS to deliver high-performance multicore computing experience.

8) Mikebuntu
This distro is packed on the free DVD with additional PDFs and software, along with extra desktop environments and plenty of options.

9) Gentoo
Gentoo – or Linux For Masochistsis is probably the distro that will not be liked by sluggish majority for the simple fact that you have to hoard it yourself. Not just apps, rather the whole thing, including the kernel of your recent distro is taken for granted by majority of peple. So, go and grab a cup of coffee before you try to install it.

10) Scientific Linux
Windows has continued to dominate the desktop as Linux doesn’t seem up to the job technically. But, the fact can be easily contested by the cleverest people on the Earth- the scientists who are looking for clues about the beginning of the universe. They use Scientific Linux at the CERN laboratories, which is based on Red Hat. Virtually, anyone can download and install this distro on their machine.

List of Linux distributions – 1



Debian GNU/Linux is a distribution that emphasizes free software. It supports many hardware platforms. Debian and distributions based on it use the .deb package formatand the dpkg package manager and its frontends.

Distribution Description
64 Studio Attempts to specialize in audio and video production on x86-64 workstations.
aptosid Multilingual desktop-oriented Live CD based on Debian unstable. Formerly sidux.
Bharat Operating System Solutions This software is also known by the acronym BOSS GNU/Linux or simply BOSS Linux.
Canaima A Venezuelan distribution.
Caixa Mágica A Portuguese distribution.
Corel Linux Commercial. Short-lived desktop distribution, bought by Xandros Linux.
CrunchBang Linux A small Distro and Live CD based on Debian Stable, featuring the Openbox window manager and tint2 panel with GTK+ applications.
Dreamlinux A Brazilian Linux distribution (not active anymore).
Elive A Live CD and Distribution featuring Enlightenment as the only window manager. Aims to be intuitive and easy to use.
Emdebian Grip A small-footprint Linux distribution based on and compatible with Debian, intended for use on resource-limited embedded systems.
Finnix A small system administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures.
gNewSense gNewSense is a computer operating system, originally based on Ubuntu and later upon Debian, and developed with sponsorship from the Free Software Foundation. Its goal is user-friendliness, but with all proprietary (e.g. binary blobs) and non-free software removed.
grml Live CD for system recovery.
HandyLinux A Debian derivative, designed for seniors equipped with old computers which have become too slow for Windows.
Instant WebKiosk Live, browser only operating system for use in web kiosks and for digital signage.
Kali Linux Made to be a completely customizable OS, used for penetration testing.
Kanotix An installable live DVD/CD for desktop usage using KDE and LXDE, focusing on convenient scripts and GUI for ease of use.
Knoppix The first Live CD (later DVD) version of Debian GNU/Linux.
Kurumin Earlier, it was a version of the Knoppix distribution, modified with Debian and designed for Brazilian users.
LEAF Project The Linux Embedded Appliance Framework. A tiny primarily floppy-based distribution for routers, firewalls and other appliances.
LiMux An ISO 9241 industry workplace certified Linux distribution, deployed at the City of Munich, Germany.
LinuxBBQ LinuxBBQ is a plethora of releases for various targets and goals based on Debian Sid.
Linux Mint Debian Edition Linux Mint Debian Edition (LMDE) is a rolling distribution based on Debian Testing. It is available in both 32 and 64-bit as a live DVD with a Cinnamon or MATE desktop. The purpose of LMDE is to look identical to the main Linux Mint edition and to provide the same functionality while using Debian as a base.
Maemo A development platform for hand held devices such as the Nokia N800, N810, and Nokia N900 Internet Tablets and other Linux kernel–based devices.
MEPIS Focuses on ease of use. Also includes a lightweight variant called antiX. antiX is meant to be used on older computers with limited hardware.
MintPPC For PowerPC computers. Although MintPPC uses some Mint LXDE code, it is not Linux Mint.
Musix GNU+Linux A Debian based distribution, intended for music production, graphic design, audio, video editing, and other tasks. It is built with only free software.
NepaLinux A Debian and Morphix based distribution focused for desktop usage in Nepali language computing.
OpenZaurus Debian packages and ROM image for the Sharp Zaurus PDA. Replaced by Ångström distribution.
Pardus Developed by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology. Prior to 2013 it used PISI as the package manager, with COMAR as the configuration framework. Starting with Pardus 2013, it is Debian-based.
Parsix Optimized for personal computers and laptops. Built on top of Debian testing branch and comes with security support.
PureOS Based on Debian Testing.
Rxart Desktop-oriented distribution. Focused on providing proprietary software.
Sacix A Debian Pure Blend originally created to support the educational and free software diffusion goals of the Telecentres project of the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
Siduction Derived from aptosid, siduction is a distro based on debian sid with a friendly community.
Skolelinux A distribution from Norway. It is provided as a thin client distribution for schools.
SolusOS Based on the Stable branch of Debian with updated software applications from Debian backports. Improved media support. Features the Gnome desktop with usability patches and customized applications.
SolydXK Xfce and KDE desktop with a semi-rolling release model.
SteamOS Debian-based and gaming-focused distribution developed by Valve Corporation and designed around the Steam digital distribution platform.
Sunwah Linux A Chinese distribution
Symphony OS Includes the Mezzo desktop environment. Previous versions were based on Knoppix.
SalineOS Lean, stable and easy-to-use distribution with XFCE as graphical interface.
TAILS The Amnesic Incognito Live System’ or Tails is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity, with all outgoing connections forced to go through Tor.
Ubuntu A distribution sponsored by Canonical Ltd. and receiving major funding from South African Mark Shuttleworth. Aims to offer a complete and polished desktop on a single DVD.
Ulteo Virtual desktop project.
Univention Corporate Server Enterprise distribution with integrated IT infrastructure and identity management system by the company Univention GmbH, Germany. A full version for up to 5 users for tests and for private use can be downloaded.
Webconverger Debian Live based browser only distribution, similar to Google Chrome OS. However based on Firefox & dwm, with no user sign-in, no special hardware required and designed for public places.
Vyatta Commercial open source network operating system includes routing, firewall, VPN, intrusion prevention and more. Designed to be an open source Cisco replacement.


Knoppix, itself, is based on Debian.

Distribution Description
Damn Small Linux It is a small distro designed to run on older hardware. It is commonly used on virtual machines due to low memory requirements.
Feather Linux It boots from either a CD or a USB flash drive. Uses Knoppix-based hardware detection and the Fluxbox window manager.
Hikarunix A distribution solely for studying and playing the game of Go. Based on Damn Small Linux.
Kaella The French translation of Knoppix.


Ubuntu is a distribution based on Debian, designed to have regular releases, a consistent user experience and commercial support on both desktop and server.

Official distributions

These Ubuntu variants simply install a set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them.

Distribution Description
Edubuntu A complete Linux kernel–based operating system targeted for primary and secondary education. It is freely available with community based support. The Edubuntu community is built on the ideas enshrined in the Edubuntu Manifesto: that software, especially for education, should be available free of charge and that software tools should be usable by people in their local language and despite any disabilities.
Kubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu using KDE instead of the GNOME or Unity interfaces used by default in Ubuntu.
Lubuntu Lubuntu is a project that is an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system that is “lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient”, using the LXDE desktop environment.
Mythbuntu Based on Ubuntu and MythTV, providing applications for recording TV and acting as a media center.
Ubuntu for Android Designed for use with Android phones.
Ubuntu GNOME An official Ubuntu variant[59] that uses Gnome Shell as its default desktop and GDM as its display manager.
UbuntuKylin An official derivative aimed at the Chinese market.
Ubuntu Server An official derivative made for use in servers. Ubuntu Server handles mail, controls printers, acts as a fileserver, can host LAMP and more.
Ubuntu Studio Based on Ubuntu, providing open-source applications for multimedia creation aimed at the audio, video and graphic editors.
Ubuntu Touch Designed for use with touchscreen devices.
Ubuntu TV Designed for use with TVs.
Xubuntu An official derivative of Ubuntu using Xfce. Xubuntu is intended for use on less-powerful computers or those who seek a highly efficient desktop environment on faster systems, and uses mostly GTK+ applications.

Old official distributions

Distribution Description
Ubuntu JeOS “Just Enough OS” – was described as “an efficient variant […] configured specifically for virtual appliances”. Since the release of Ubuntu 8.10 it has been included as an option as part of the standard Ubuntu Server Edition.
Ubuntu Mobile An embedded operating system designed for use on mobile devices. The operating system will use Hildon from maemo as its graphical frontend. Ubuntu Touch is a successor to Ubuntu Mobile.
Ubuntu Netbook Edition Netbook Edition was an official derivative of Ubuntu designed for netbooks using the Intel Atom processor. Starting from Ubuntu 11.04, Ubuntu Netbook Edition has been merged into the desktop edition.

Third-party distributions

Unofficial variants and derivatives are not controlled or guided by Canonical Ltd. and generally have different goals in mind.

Distribution Description
Aurora Specifically for the Eee PC range of netbooks, based on Debian. Previously named Eeebuntu and based on Ubuntu.
Baltix Ubuntu-based distribution for Lithuanian and Latvian people. Supported languages are Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, Russian, English, Norwegian and other around Baltic region. Main language is Lithuanian.
BackBox BackBox is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It has been developed to perform penetration tests and security assessments. Designed to be fast, easy to use and provide a minimal yet complete desktop environment, thanks to its own software repositories, always being updated to the latest stable version of the most used and best known ethical hacking tools.
BackTrack Developed by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing.
BlankOn Ubuntu-based distribution for users in Indonesia.
Buildix An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution, developed by Global IT professional services firm, ThoughtWorks. For agile developers.
Bodhi Linux An Ubuntu-based Linux distribution featuring the Enlightenment window manager and targeting users who want minimum of preinstalled software or low system requirements.
Cubuntu Ubuntu-based distribution with the Cinnamon interface.
Linux Deepin a Linux distribution based on the Ubuntu Linux Distribution. The Chinese version is tailored for Chinese language users and includes preconfigured Chinese applications such as simplified Chinese input methods, Chinese dictionaries, and Chinese TrueType fonts. From Version 11.12, Linux Deepin provides different ISO images for Chinese and English.
dyne:bolic Live CD geared toward multimedia (audio and video) production, but comes with other non-media specific application (e.g.: word processor, desktop publisher).
EasyPeasy Fork of Ubuntu designed for netbooks.
Element OS Based on Xubuntu, made for Home theater PCs.
Elementary OS A powerful, user-friendly distribution known for its well received user interface, proprietary software, and devoted community of developers and artists.
Emmabuntüs Based on Xubuntu designed to facilitate the repacking of computers donated to Emmaüs Communities.
GendBuntu A version adapted for use by France’s National Gendarmerie.
Gobuntu Gobuntu was an official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. It was officially announced by Mark Shuttleworth on July 10, 2007, and daily builds of Gobuntu 7.10 began to be publicly released. The project ended around the release of 8.04 and has since merged into mainline Ubuntu as a ‘free software’ option.
Goobuntu An Ubuntu-based distribution used internally by Google. Not available outside of Google.
gOS Uses the GNOME desktop environment with user interface enhancements to make it work more like Mac OS X, it also features Google Apps, Picasa, Google Gadgets and other web-based applications, and comes with Wine 1.0 pre-installed.
Guadalinex Ubuntu-based distribution promoted by the local government of Andalucia, Spain, for home users and schools.
Iskolinux A Linux distribution packaged and maintained by UP Manila’s (UPM) Information Management System as part of University of the Philippines’ thrust to migrate to Linux.
Joli OS Joli OS (formerly named Jolicloud) is in development and Pre-beta testing. Joli OS is built upon Debian and Ubuntu 9.10, but is tweaked to be more suitable for computers that have weaker specifications in terms of disk storage, memory and screen size. It is designed to run on relatively low-powered netbook computers.
HP Mi Based on Ubuntu 8.04 LTS, designed by Canonical and HP for use on the HP Mini 1000 and 110 series netbooks.
Impi Linux South African and focuses on the enterprise and government sector.
Karoshi A formerly PCLinuxOS-based distribution designed for use in schools.
Kuki Linux Lightweight Ubuntu-based Linux distribution founded by João Ferro, built to be a replacement for the Linpus Linux Lite distribution on the Acer Aspire One.
LiMux A project by the city council of Munich, Germany.
Linux Mint Linux Mint synchronizes its release-cycle with Ubuntu’s, and is tailored to user-friendliness for desktop users. Also features a Debian-based edition.
LinuxMCE Linux Media Center Edition, a Kubuntu based distribution that provides in-depth HTPC functionality as well as home automation.[88]
LinuxTLE A Thai Linux distribution.
LliureX A distribution by the Generalitat Valenciana
LOUD LCSEE Optimized Ubuntu Distribution, an Ubuntu distribution used at West Virginia University. It contains several specialized educational packages as well as its own themes and login manager.
MAX Stands for MAdrid LinuX.
Molinux Ubuntu based initiative to introduce the Castile-La Mancha community in Spain to the information society.
Moon OS Moon OS uses the Enlightenment window manager and also has an LXDE version, and is based on the LTS release.
Nova Cuban state-sponsored distribution developed at the University of Information Science, Havana. Formerly based on Gentoo.
Netrunner Kubuntu based distribution with complete software and codecs installed, developed by Blue Systems (also sponsoring Kubuntu and LinuxMintKDE).
OpenGEU Ubuntu based distribution with Enlightenment window manager, previously known as Geubuntu.
Peppermint OS A light-weight LXDE distribution for cloud applications through its own Ice Framework using Chromium Web Browser. Based on Lubuntu
Pinguy OS An Ubuntu-based distro for people that have never used Linux before or for people that want an out-of-the-box working OS without having to tweak a fresh installation of Ubuntu or other Ubuntu-based distro.
Poseidon Linux For academic and scientific use. Based on Ubuntu, but enhanced by e.g. GIS/maps, numerical modelling, 2D/3D/4D visualization, statistics, tools for creating simple and complex graphics, programming languages.
PUD Small distribution, aimed at being simple and usable.
Qimo 4 Kids Educational games for children aged three and up. Ubuntu-based with easy-to-use interface.
Sabily Ubuntu based distribution for Muslims (formerly Ubuntu Muslim Edition).
Super OS Aiming to provide an ‘out of the box’ experience, containing various enhancements over Ubuntu.
Trisquel GNU/Linux Fully free software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses the Linux-libre kernel, based on Ubuntu LTS Releases.
TurnKey Linux Virtual Appliance Library Open source project developing a family of free, Ubuntu-based appliances optimized for ease of use in server-type usage scenarios.
UberStudent For higher education and advanced secondary students, those who teach them, and lifelong learners.
Vinux A Linux distribution designed for visually impaired users.
ZevenOS Similar to BeOS, with some extra tools.

An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux.

Before start i will tell you what is Bash and shell.

What is Bash?

Bash is the shell, or command language interpreter, for the GNU operating system. The name is an acronym for the ‘Bourne-Again SHell’, a pun on Stephen Bourne, the author of the direct ancestor of the current Unix shell sh, which appeared in the Seventh Edition Bell Labs Research version of Unix.

Bash is largely compatible with sh and incorporates useful features from the Korn shell ksh and the C shell csh. It is intended to be a conformant implementation of the IEEE POSIX Shell and Tools portion of the IEEE POSIX specification (IEEE Standard 1003.1). It offers functional improvements over sh for both interactive and programming use.

While the GNU operating system provides other shells, including a version of csh, Bash is the default shell. Like other GNU software, Bash is quite portable. It currently runs on nearly every version of Unix and a few other operating systems – independently-supported ports exist for MS-DOS, OS/2, and Windows platforms.

What is a shell?

At its base, a shell is simply a macro processor that executes commands. The term macro processor means functionality where text and symbols are expanded to create larger expressions.

A Unix shell is both a command interpreter and a programming language. As a command interpreter, the shell provides the user interface to the rich set of GNU utilities. The programming language features allow these utilities to be combined. Files containing commands can be created, and become commands themselves. These new commands have the same status as system commands in directories such as /bin, allowing users or groups to establish custom environments to automate their common tasks.

Shells may be used interactively or non-interactively. In interactive mode, they accept input typed from the keyboard. When executing non-interactively, shells execute commands read from a file.

A shell allows execution of GNU commands, both synchronously and asynchronously. The shell waits for synchronous commands to complete before accepting more input; asynchronous commands continue to execute in parallel with the shell while it reads and executes additional commands. The redirection constructs permit fine-grained control of the input and output of those commands. Moreover, the shell allows control over the contents of commands’ environments.

Shells also provide a small set of built-in commands (builtins) implementing functionality impossible or inconvenient to obtain via separate utilities. For example, cd, break, continue, and exec) cannot be implemented outside of the shell because they directly manipulate the shell itself. The history, getopts, kill, or pwd builtins, among others, could be implemented in separate utilities, but they are more convenient to use as builtin commands. All of the shell builtins are described in subsequent sections.

While executing commands is essential, most of the power (and complexity) of shells is due to their embedded programming languages. Like any high-level language, the shell provides variables, flow control constructs, quoting, and functions.

Shells offer features geared specifically for interactive use rather than to augment the programming language. These interactive features include job control, command line editing, command history and aliases. Each of these features is described in this manual.

(1)Shell is another term for user interface. Operating systems and applications sometimes provide an alternative shell to make interaction with the program easier. For example, if the application is usually command driven, the shell might be a menu-driven system that translates the user’s selections into the appropriate commands.

(2) Sometimes called command shell, a shell is the command processor interface. The command processor is the program that executes operating system commands. The shell, therefore, is the part of the command processor that accepts commands. After verifying that the commands are valid, the shell sends them to another part of the command processor to be executed.

UNIX systems offer a choice between several different shells, the most popular being the Cshell, the Bourne shell, and the Korn shell. Each offers a somewhat different command language.

Bash command line for Linux.

  alias    Create an alias 
  apropos  Search Help manual pages (man -k)
  apt-get  Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
  aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
  aspell   Spell Checker
  awk      Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
  basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
  bash     GNU Bourne-Again SHell 
  bc       Arbitrary precision calculator language 
  bg       Send to background
  break    Exit from a loop •
  builtin  Run a shell builtin
  bzip2    Compress or decompress named file(s)
  cal      Display a calendar
  case     Conditionally perform a command
  cat      Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
  cd       Change Directory
  cfdisk   Partition table manipulator for Linux
  chgrp    Change group ownership
  chmod    Change access permissions
  chown    Change file owner and group
  chroot   Run a command with a different root directory
  chkconfig System services (runlevel)
  cksum    Print CRC checksum and byte counts
  clear    Clear terminal screen
  cmp      Compare two files
  comm     Compare two sorted files line by line
  command  Run a command - ignoring shell functions •
  continue Resume the next iteration of a loop •
  cp       Copy one or more files to another location
  cron     Daemon to execute scheduled commands
  crontab  Schedule a command to run at a later time
  csplit   Split a file into context-determined pieces
  cut      Divide a file into several parts
  date     Display or change the date & time
  dc       Desk Calculator
  dd       Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
  ddrescue Data recovery tool
  declare  Declare variables and give them attributes •
  df       Display free disk space
  diff     Display the differences between two files
  diff3    Show differences among three files
  dig      DNS lookup
  dir      Briefly list directory contents
  dircolors Colour setup for `ls'
  dirname  Convert a full pathname to just a path
  dirs     Display list of remembered directories
  dmesg    Print kernel & driver messages 
  du       Estimate file space usage
  echo     Display message on screen •
  egrep    Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
  eject    Eject removable media
  enable   Enable and disable builtin shell commands •
  env      Environment variables
  ethtool  Ethernet card settings
  eval     Evaluate several commands/arguments
  exec     Execute a command
  exit     Exit the shell
  expect   Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
  expand   Convert tabs to spaces
  export   Set an environment variable
  expr     Evaluate expressions
  false    Do nothing, unsuccessfully
  fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
  fdisk    Partition table manipulator for Linux
  fg       Send job to foreground 
  fgrep    Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
  file     Determine file type
  find     Search for files that meet a desired criteria
  fmt      Reformat paragraph text
  fold     Wrap text to fit a specified width.
  for      Expand words, and execute commands
  format   Format disks or tapes
  free     Display memory usage
  fsck     File system consistency check and repair
  ftp      File Transfer Protocol
  function Define Function Macros
  fuser    Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
  gawk     Find and Replace text within file(s)
  getopts  Parse positional parameters
  grep     Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
  groupadd Add a user security group
  groupdel Delete a group
  groupmod Modify a group
  groups   Print group names a user is in
  gzip     Compress or decompress named file(s)
  hash     Remember the full pathname of a name argument
  head     Output the first part of file(s)
  help     Display help for a built-in command •
  history  Command History
  hostname Print or set system name
  iconv    Convert the character set of a file
  id       Print user and group id's
  if       Conditionally perform a command
  ifconfig Configure a network interface
  ifdown   Stop a network interface 
  ifup     Start a network interface up
  import   Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
  install  Copy files and set attributes
  jobs     List active jobs •
  join     Join lines on a common field
  kill     Stop a process from running
  killall  Kill processes by name
  less     Display output one screen at a time
  let      Perform arithmetic on shell variables •
  link     Create a link to a file 
  ln       Create a symbolic link to a file
  local    Create variables •
  locate   Find files
  logname  Print current login name
  logout   Exit a login shell •
  look     Display lines beginning with a given string
  lpc      Line printer control program
  lpr      Off line print
  lprint   Print a file
  lprintd  Abort a print job
  lprintq  List the print queue
  lprm     Remove jobs from the print queue
  ls       List information about file(s)
  lsof     List open files
  make     Recompile a group of programs
  man      Help manual
  mkdir    Create new folder(s)
  mkfifo   Make FIFOs (named pipes)
  mkisofs  Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
  mknod    Make block or character special files
  more     Display output one screen at a time
  mount    Mount a file system
  mtools   Manipulate MS-DOS files
  mtr      Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
  mv       Move or rename files or directories
  mmv      Mass Move and rename (files)
  netstat  Networking information
  nice     Set the priority of a command or job
  nl       Number lines and write files
  nohup    Run a command immune to hangups
  notify-send  Send desktop notifications
  nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively
  open     Open a file in its default application
  op       Operator access 
  passwd   Modify a user password
  paste    Merge lines of files
  pathchk  Check file name portability
  ping     Test a network connection
  pkill    Stop processes from running
  popd     Restore the previous value of the current directory
  pr       Prepare files for printing
  printcap Printer capability database
  printenv Print environment variables
  printf   Format and print data •
  ps       Process status
  pushd    Save and then change the current directory
  pv       Monitor the progress of data through a pipe 
  pwd      Print Working Directory
  quota    Display disk usage and limits
  quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
  quotactl Set disk quotas
  ram      ram disk device
  rcp      Copy files between two machines
  read     Read a line from standard input •
  readarray Read from stdin into an array variable •
  readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
  reboot   Reboot the system
  rename   Rename files
  renice   Alter priority of running processes 
  remsync  Synchronize remote files via email
  return   Exit a shell function
  rev      Reverse lines of a file
  rm       Remove files
  rmdir    Remove folder(s)
  rsync    Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
  screen   Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
  scp      Secure copy (remote file copy)
  sdiff    Merge two files interactively
  sed      Stream Editor
  select   Accept keyboard input
  seq      Print numeric sequences
  set      Manipulate shell variables and functions
  sftp     Secure File Transfer Program
  shift    Shift positional parameters
  shopt    Shell Options
  shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
  sleep    Delay for a specified time
  slocate  Find files
  sort     Sort text files
  source   Run commands from a file '.'
  split    Split a file into fixed-size pieces
  ssh      Secure Shell client (remote login program)
  strace   Trace system calls and signals
  su       Substitute user identity
  sudo     Execute a command as another user
  sum      Print a checksum for a file
  suspend  Suspend execution of this shell •
  sync     Synchronize data on disk with memory
  tail     Output the last part of file
  tar      Store, list or extract files in an archive
  tee      Redirect output to multiple files
  test     Evaluate a conditional expression
  time     Measure Program running time
  timeout  Run a command with a time limit
  times    User and system times
  touch    Change file timestamps
  top      List processes running on the system
  traceroute Trace Route to Host
  trap     Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
  tr       Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
  true     Do nothing, successfully
  tsort    Topological sort
  tty      Print filename of terminal on stdin
  type     Describe a command •
  ulimit   Limit user resources •
  umask    Users file creation mask
  umount   Unmount a device
  unalias  Remove an alias •
  uname    Print system information
  unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
  uniq     Uniquify files
  units    Convert units from one scale to another
  unset    Remove variable or function names
  unshar   Unpack shell archive scripts
  until    Execute commands (until error)
  uptime   Show uptime
  useradd  Create new user account
  userdel  Delete a user account
  usermod  Modify user account
  users    List users currently logged in
  uuencode Encode a binary file 
  uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode
  v        Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
  vdir     Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
  vi       Text Editor
  vmstat   Report virtual memory statistics
  wait     Wait for a process to complete •
  watch    Execute/display a program periodically
  wc       Print byte, word, and line counts
  whereis  Search the user's $path, man pages and source files for a program
  which    Search the user's $path for a program file
  while    Execute commands
  who      Print all usernames currently logged in
  whoami   Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
  wget     Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
  write    Send a message to another user 
  xargs    Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
  xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user's preferred application.
  yes      Print a string until interrupted
  zip      Package and compress (archive) files.
  .        Run a command script in the current shell
  !!       Run the last command again
  ###      Comment / Remark